Maslow thought that these needs are like instincts and play a major role in motivating conduct. Physiological, security, social, and esteem requirements are deficiency needs (a.k.a. D-needs), meaning that these needs come up due to deprivation. Fulfilling these lower-level needs is important in order to prevent unpleasant feelings or results.

Psychologist Abraham Maslow first introduced his concept of a hierarchy of needs in his 1943 paper “A Theory of Human Motivation“1 and his subsequent book, Motivation and Personality.2 This hierarchy proposes that individuals are motivated to fulfill basic needs before moving on to extra needs.

Maslow termed the highest-level of the pyramid as growth needs (aka being needs or B-needs). Growth needs don’t come from a lack of something, but instead from a want to grow as a individual.

5 different levels in Maslow’s hierarchy of needs

1. Physiologic Needs
These include the commonest needs that are critical to survival, like the need for water, air, food and rest. Maslow thought that these needs are the commonest and natural needs in the hierarchy as all needs become lower till these physiologic needs are fulfilled.

2. Protection Needs
These include needs for refuge and protection. Protection needs are crucial for survival, but they’re not as exacting as the physiologic needs. Examples of protection needs include a desire for firm employment, health insurance, safe places to live and protection from the environment.

3. Social Needs
These include needs for belonging, love and tenderness. Maslow believed these needs to be less common than physiologic and protection needs. Kinships like friendships, romantic attachments and family units help fill this need for company and acceptance, as does involvement in social, community or spiritual groups.

4. Regard Needs
After the first 3 needs have been fulfilled, regard needs becomes progressively crucial. These include the need for things that reflect on self-regard, personal worth, social recognition and achievement.

5. Self-Actualising Needs
This is the highest level of Maslow’s hierarchy of needs. Self-actualizing individuals are self-conscious, concerned with personal growth, less worried with the opinions of other people and interested satisfying their potential.

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